Here are some notes and revisions I did on the topic of Public Participation – the act of sharing in the formulation of policies and proposals (Skeffington Report, 1969).
Elements of public participation include:
- The sharing views of views and knowledge
- Expression, and
Sherry Arnstein spoke of the levels of participation. They included:
Nonparticipation – 1. Manipulation and 2. Therapy
Tokenism – 3. Informing 4. Consultation and 5. Placation
Citizen Power – 6. Partnership 7. Delegated Power, and 8. Citizen Control
Benefits of Participation include:
True public participation empowers people and communities…everyone should have the ability influence and shape their community, region and country.
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