Here are some notes and revisions I did on the topic of Public Participation – the act of sharing in the formulation of policies and proposals (Skeffington Report, 1969).

thinkinginsomniac vernelle noel

thinkinginsomniac vernelle noel public participation

Elements of public participation

Elements of public participation include:

  1. The sharing views of views and knowledge
  2. Consensus
  3. Discussion
  4. Expression, and
  5. Action
thinkinginsomniac vernelle noel public participation

Manipulation and Tokenism

Sherry Arnstein spoke of the levels of participation. They included:

Nonparticipation – 1. Manipulation and 2. Therapy

Tokenism – 3. Informing 4. Consultation and 5. Placation

Citizen Power – 6. Partnership 7. Delegated Power, and 8. Citizen Control

thinkinginsomniac vernelle noel public participation

Citizen Power

Benefits of Participation include:

thinkinginsomniac vernelle noel public participation

Benefits of Participation

True public participation empowers people and communities…everyone should have the ability  influence and shape their community, region and country.

Creative Commons License
This work by Vernelle Noel is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.

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